Guru Angad (31 March 1504 – 29 March 1552; (2) Gurmukhi ਗੁਰੂ ਅੰਗਦ, pronunciation (gʊɾuː əŋgəd̯ᵊ)) was the second of the ten Sikh exponents of Sikhism. After meeting Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the author of Sikhism, getting a Sikh, and serving and working with Guru Nanak Dev Ji for numerous times, Nanak gave Lehna the name Angad (“my own branch”), and chose Angad as the alternate Sikh Guru.
After the death of Guru Nanak Dev Ji in 1539, Guru Angad Sahib ji led the Sikh tradition. He’s remembered in Sikhism for espousing and standardizing the Gurmukhi ABC. He began the process of collecting the hymns of Nanak and contributed 62 or 63 hymns of his own. Rather of his own son, he chose his convert Amar Das as his successor and the third Practitioner of Sikhism.
Practitioner Angad Sahib ji was born with birth name of Lehna in vill of Harike in the Punjab region. He was the son of a small but successful dealer named Pheru Mal. His mama’s name was Mata Ramo ( also known as Mata Sabhirai, Mansa Devi and Daya Kaur). Like all the Sikh Gurus, Lehna came from Hindu Khatri estate/ family.
At age 16, Guru Angad ji married a Khatri girl named Mata Khivi in January 1520. They had two sons (Dasu and Datu) and one or two daughters (Amro and Anokhi), depending on the primary sources. The entire family of his father had left their ancestral vill in fear of the irruption of Babur’s armies. After this the family settled at Khadur Sahib, a vill by the River Beas near what’s now Tarn Taran.
Before getting a convert of Guru Nanak and following the Sikh way of life as Guru Angad ji, Lehna was a religious schoolteacher and clerk who followed Hinduism. Lehna in his late 20s sought out Nanak, came his convert, and displayed deep and pious service to his Practitioner for about six to seven times in Kartarpur and renounced the Sanatan way of life.
Selection as successor
Several stories in the Sikh tradition describe reasons why Lehna was chosen by Guru Nanak over his own sons as his choice of successor. One of these stories is about a flagon which fell into slush, and Nanak asked his sons to pick it up. They didn’t pick it up because it was too dirty or slavish a task. Also he asked Lehna, who still picked it out of the slush, washed it clean, and presented it to Guru Nanak full of water. Nanak touched him and renamed him Angad (from Ang, or part of the body) and named him as his successor and the alternate Guruon 7 September 1539.
After Nanak failed on 22 September 1539, Guru Angad ji was unfit to bear the separation from Nanak and retired into a room in a convert’s house in a state of Vairagya. Baba Buddha latterly discovered him after a long hunt and requested him to return for Guruship. The Gurbani uttered at the time Die before the one whom you love, to live after he dies is to live a empty life in this world. was the first hymn in Guru Granth Sahib by Sri Guru Angad Dev ji and signifies the pain he felt at the separation from Nanak. Practitioner Angad ji latterly left Kartarpur for the vill of Khadur Sahib (near Goindwal Sahib). Post race, at one point, veritably many Sikhs accepted Guru Angad ji as their leader and while the sons of Nanak claimed to be the successors. Practitioner Angadji concentrated on the training of Nanak, and erecting the community through charitable workshop similar as langar.
Relationship with the Mughal Empire
The alternate Mughal Emperor of India Humayun visited Guru Angad ji at around 1540 after Humayun lost the Battle of Kannauj, and thereby the Mughal throne to Sher Shah Suri. According to Sikh histories, when Humayun arrived in Gurdwara Mal Akhara Sahib at Khadur Sahib Guru Angad ji was sitting and tutoring children. The failure to hail the Emperor incontinently infuriated Humayun. Humayun lashed out but the Guru reminded him that the time when you demanded to fight when you lost your throne you ran down and didn’t fight and now you want to attack a person engaged in prayer. In the Sikh textbooks written more than a century after the event, Guru Angad ji is said to have blessed the emperor, and comforted him that eventually he’ll recapture the throne. (
Death and successor
Before his death, Guru Angad ji, following the illustration set by Nanak, nominated Guru Amar Das as his successor (The Third Nanak). Amar Das was born into a Hindu family and had been reputed to have gone on some twenty pilgrimages into the Himalayas, to Haridwar on swash Ganges. About 1539, on one similar Hindu passage, he met a sadhu, or ascetic, who asked him why he didn’t have a practitioner ( schoolteacher, spiritual counsellor) and Amar Das decided to get one. On his return, he heard Bibi Amro, the son of the Guru Angad ji who had married his family’s son, singing a hymn by Guru Nanak. Amar Das learnt from her about Guru Angad ji, and with her help met the alternate Practitioner of Sikhism in 1539, espousing Guru Angad as his spiritual Practitioner, who was important youngish than his own age.
Amar Das displayed grim devotion and service to Guru Angad. Sikh tradition states that he woke up in the early hours to cost water for Guru Angad’s bath, gutted and cooked for the levies with the Guru, as well devoted important time to contemplation and prayers in the morning and evening. Practitioner Angad named Amar Das as his successor in 1552. Practitioner Angad failed on 29 March 1552.
Guru Angad is credited in the Sikh tradition with the Gurmukhi script, which is now the standard jotting script for Punjabi language in India, in discrepancy to Punjabi language in Pakistan where now a Perso-Arabic script called Shahmukhi is the standard. The original Sikh Good Book and utmost of the major Sikh literature have been written in the Gurmukhi script.
Practitioner Angad formalized and made advancements to the scripts of the region to produce the Gurmukhi script. Exemplifications of possible forerunners of the script including at least one hymn written in acrostic form by Guru Nanak, and its earlier history is yet to be completely determined.
He also wrote 62 or 63 Saloks ( compositions), which together constitute about one percent of the Guru Granth Sahib, the primary Book of Sikhism. Rather than contribute hymns, Angad’s significance was as a consolidator of Guru Nanak’s hymns. Practitioner Angad would also supervise the jotting down of Nanak’s hymns by Bhai Paira Mokha and check the performing compendium, preparing the way for a Sikh Book, as well as the morning of a conversational Punjabi literature, as tradition holds that he may have also commissioned an account of Guru Nanak’s life from earlier votaries. The collection of hymns would also be decreasingly important for the expanding community.
Langar and community work
Guru Angad is notable for marshaling the institution of langar in all Sikh tabernacle demesne, where callers from near and far could get a free simple mess in a collaborative seating. He also set the rules and training system for levies (sevadars) who operated the kitchen, placing emphasis on treating it as a place of rest and retreat, being always polite and sociable to all callers.
Guru Angad visited other places and centres established by Guru Nanak for the preaching of Sikhism. He established new centres and therefore strengthened its base.
The Guru, being a great patron of wrestling, started a Mall Akhara (wrestling arena) system where physical exercises, martial trades, and wrestling was tutored as well as health motifs similar as staying down from tobacco and other poisonous substances. He placed emphasis on keeping the body healthy and excersising daily. He innovated numerous similar Mall Akharas in numerous townlets including a many in Khandur. Generally the wrestling was done after diurnal prayers and also included games and light wrestling.